Technological advances in science and their impact on humanity is often controversial especially when they challenge social norms. The possibilities for humankind are unimaginable. How our race will transform and evolve will depend largely on what society deems acceptable rather than on what technological solutions are developed.A group of loosely associated scientists and technologists is focused on how to enhance the human condition. These Transhumanists, as they are referred to, believe that humans can become vastly greater than their current state with the aid of scientific advances in drugs coupled with technological progress. According to Transhumanists, the greatest and most controversial goal is the conquest of death itself. Some of Transhumanists’ most notable advocates, including American inventor, Ray Kurzweil, argue that immortality will likely become a possibility for humankind within our lifetime.Opponents of transhumanism argue that mankind will never possess the necessary wisdom or technological capabilities to achieve such a feat. Author, Francis Fukuyama, opposes the aspirations of the Transhumanists and claims that fruition of their goals would pose a dangerous threat to humankind. Whether or not achieving immortality is possible, it is interesting to consider the moral implications of humans having control over their own ultimate fate. Many believe this choice resting in an individual’s hands would have horrible consequences for humanity in general.Transhumanists emphasize the fact that there already exist an abundance of drugs which have the potential to alter our capabilities. For example, there are existing drugs which can alter or enhance memory and even increase life expectancy by increasing sirtuin levels over prolonged periods. Although many drugs are still in the early stages of development, Transhumanists believe their existence alone is indicative of great possibilities for humankind. Even if the opportunity to control the length of our life becomes readily available, the real issue will be whether it is also acceptable?
According to paragraph (1), what is the main factor influencing the transformation of humankind?